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Hoicka, E. et al. (2012) Early humour production (Journal Article)

Abstract:

The current studies explored early humour as a complex socio-cognitive phenomenon by examining 2- and 3-year-olds’ humour production with their parents. We examined whether children produced novel humour, whether they cued their humour, and the types of humour produced. Forty-seven parents were interviewed, and videotaped joking with their children. Other parents (N= 113) completed a survey. Parents reported children copy jokes during the first year of life, and produce novel jokes from 2 years. In play sessions, 3-year-olds produced mostly novel humorous acts; 2-year-olds produced novel and copied humorous acts equally frequently. Parents reported children smile, laugh, and look for a reaction when joking. In play sessions, 2- and 3-year-olds produced these behaviours more when producing humorous versus non-humorous acts. In both parent reports and play sessions, they produced novel object-based (e.g., underwear on head) and conceptual humour (e.g., ‘pig says moo’) and used wrong labels humorously (e.g., calling a cat a dog). Thus, parent report and child behaviour both confirm that young children produce novel humorous acts, and share their humour by smiling, laughing, and looking for a reaction.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2012
Volume:
30
Page/s:
586–603
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Humour
  • Parent/Guardian play
  • Social cognition
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Hoicka, E. et al. (2016) Parents Produce Explicit Cues That Help Toddlers Distinguish Joking and Pretending (Journal Article)

Abstract:

While separate pieces of research found parents offer toddlers cues to express that they are (1) joking and (2) pretending, and that toddlers and preschoolers understand intentions to (1) joke and (2) pretend, it is not yet clear whether parents and toddlers consider joking and pretending to be distinct concepts. This is important as distinguishing these two forms of non-literal acts could open a gateway to understanding the complexities of the non-literal world, as well as the complexities of intentions in general. Two studies found parents offer explicit cues to help 16- to 24-month-olds distinguish pretending and joking. Across an action play study (n = 25) and a verbal play study (n = 40) parents showed more disbelief and less belief through their actions and language when joking versus pretending. Similarly, toddlers showed less belief through their actions, and older toddlers showed less belief through their language. Toddlers' disbelief could be accounted for by their response to parents' language and actions. Thus, these studies reveal a mechanism by which toddlers learn to distinguish joking and pretending. Parents offer explicit cues to distinguish these intentions, and toddlers use these cues to guide their own behaviors, which in turn allows toddlers to distinguish these intentional contexts.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2016
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
40
Page/s:
941-971
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Humour
  • Parent/Guardian play
  • Pretend play
  • Social cognition
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

PEDAL, . et al. (2019) PEDAL Seminar: Toddlers Think for Themselves! (Video Recording)

Abstract:

Social learning has been a large focus of early developmental psychology for the past three decades. While it reveals how culture is transmitted to young children, questions about how young children come up with their own ideas and learn for themselves have been largely ignored.

This talk, with Dr Elena Hoicka from the University of Bristol, will present research showing that toddlers can be creative and come up with their own ideas. Elena will focus on toddlers' creation of their own novel jokes and pretending, and toddlers' divergent thinking with novel objects.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2019
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Creativity
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Humour
  • Language
  • Pretend play
  • Problem-solving
  • Symbolic play
Relevant age group/s: