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Definition

Blair, C. (2002) Early intervention for low birth weight, preterm infants: The role of negative emotionality in the specification of effects (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This study examined the relation of negative emotionality in infancy to child social and cognitive developmental outcomes among low birth weight (LBW) preterm infants participating in the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), a comprehensive compensatory education intervention beginning in infancy and lasting through age 3 years. In this analysis, intervention effects at age 36 months on maternal report of child behavior as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist externalizing and internalizing scales and on intelligence as measured by the Stanford–Binet scale were largest among children characterized by higher levels of negative emotionality in infancy. Findings indicate that for LBW preterm infants characterized by negative emotionality at age 12 months the intervention was associated with a twofold decrease in the occurrence of clinically meaningful levels of behavior problems at age 3 years and a fourfold decrease in the occurrence of a high-risk profile in which both internalizing and externalizing scores are in the clinically meaningful range. The intervention was also associated with a fivefold decrease in the occurrence of IQ ≤ 75 at age 3 years among children with higher levels of negative emotionality and heavier LBW (2001–2500 g). However, specific aspects of temperamental difficulty such as fearfulness and anger were related to internalizing and externalizing, respectively, in both the intervention and control groups. Findings are consistent with research linking negative emotionality in infancy with social and cognitive developmental outcomes in early childhood among normal birth weight infants. Results suggest the need for further attention to child temperament in early intervention research.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2002
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
14
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Experimental
  • Mental health
  • Physical health
  • Self-regulation
  • Social-emotional
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Chessa, D. et al. (2011) The affect in play scale: confirmatory factor analysis in elementary school children (Journal Article)

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to study the construct validity of the Affect in Play Scale, an empirically based measure of pretend play, in a group of 519 Italian children ages 6 to 10 years. In confirmatory factor analysis, a correlated two-factor structure with a cognitive and an affective factor was identified. Possible differences in factor scores by sex and age were investigated but no significant differences were found.

Date:
January 2011
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
109
Page/s:
759-774
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Creativity
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Play assessment
  • Pretend play
  • Scale validation
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Fehr, K. et al. (2013) Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study examined pretend play and classroom behavior in preschoolers. Children ("N" = 59) were administered a measure of pretend play, and teacher ratings of classroom behavior were obtained. Pretend play skills were positively associated with prosocial behavior in the classroom and negatively associated with physical aggression in the classroom. In particular, expression of oral aggression in play related to less physical aggression and more prosocial behavior in the classroom. Practice or Policy: These findings suggest that pretend play should be encouraged, as these skills relate to positive behaviors in the classroom. In addition, it was found that aggression in pretend play was not an indicator of actual aggressive behavior, as it related to positive behaviors in the classroom. Implications for parents and teachers are discussed. (Contains 2 tables.)

Date:
January 2013
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
24
Page/s:
332-345
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Correlational
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Play assessment
  • Pretend play
  • Social-emotional
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Fein, G. (1989) Mind, meaning, and affect: Proposals for a theory of pretense (Journal Article)

Abstract:

The present paper develops a theoretical framework for the study of pretense as a symbolic system designed to serve affective functions. The first part of the paper presents a review of three theories which acknowledge the affective function of pretense and constitute the background for the theory proposed in this paper. The second part of the paper presents an affective theory to analyze children's spontaneously generated pretend protocols. A study is then summarized as an illustration of the affective theory and directions for future research are noted.

Author/s:
Date:
January 1989
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
9
Page/s:
345-363
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Literature review
  • Pretend play
  • Semiotic play
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Gilpin, A. et al. (2015) Relations Between Fantasy Orientation and Emotion Regulation in Preschool (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Research Findings: Emotion regulation is a strong predictor of both short- and long-term peer relationships and social competence and is often targeted in preschool curricula and interventions. Pretense is a natural activity of childhood that is thought to facilitate the development of socialization, perspective taking, language, and possibly emotion regulation. This study investigated whether fantasy-oriented children, who engage in more pretense, demonstrate higher levels of emotion regulation. Prekindergartners (n = 103) and teachers were given a battery of measures assessing children’s emotion regulation, fantasy orientation, theory of mind, and language. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that children’s proclivity toward fantastical play (their fantasy orientation) uniquely predicted 24% of the variance in their emotion regulation skills over and above typical predictors: age, theory of mind, and language skills. That is, children who participated in more fantasy pretense demonstrated better emotion regulation skills than their peers. Practice or Policy: The present study suggests that future research, curriculum, and interventions should focus on targeting fantastical pretense to assess causal mechanisms of emotion regulation development. Teachers and parents should encourage children’s fantastical pretense, as research suggests it may be an important contributor to the development of critical socialization skills such as emotion regulation.

Date:
January 2015
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
26
Page/s:
920-932
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Correlational
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Pretend play
  • Social cognition
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Goldstein, T. et al. (2017) Dramatic pretend play games uniquely improve emotional control in young children (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Pretense is a naturally occurring, apparently universal activity for typically developing children. Yet its function and effects remain unclear. One theorized possibility is that pretense activities, such as dramatic pretend play games, are a possible causal path to improve children's emotional development. Social and emotional skills, particularly emotional control, are critically important for social development, as well as academic performance and later life success. However, the study of such approaches has been criticized for potential bias and lack of rigor, precluding the ability to make strong causal claims. We conducted a randomized, component control (dismantling) trial of dramatic pretend play games with a low-SES group of 4-year-old children (N = 97) to test whether such practice yields generalized improvements in multiple social and emotional outcomes. We found specific effects of dramatic play games only on emotional self-control. Results suggest that dramatic pretend play games involving physicalizing emotional states and traits, pretending to be animals and human characters, and engaging in pretend scenarios in a small group may improve children's emotional control. These findings have implications for the function of pretense and design of interventions to improve emotional control in typical and atypical populations. Further, they provide support for the unique role of dramatic pretend play games for young children, particularly those from low-income backgrounds. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/2GVNcWKRHPk

Date:
January 2017
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
e12603
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Experimental
  • Pretend play
  • Self-regulation
  • Social-emotional
  • Socio-economic background
Relevant age group/s:

Hart, S. (2016) Inclusion, Play and Empathy (Book)

Abstract:

Contributions from early childhood educators, teachers, psychologists, music therapists, occupational therapists, and psychotherapists highlight the crucial role that early relationships and interactions in group settings play in the development of children's personal, emotional and social skills. The book features the latest research and methods for successfully encouraging the development of these skills in groups of children aged 4-12. It explores how play within children's groups can be facilitated in order to foster emotional and empathic capacities, how to overcome common challenges to inclusion in schools and introduces practical, creative approaches to cultivating a sense of unity and team spirit in children's groups.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2016
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Creativity
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Games with rules
  • Learning
  • Mental health
  • Musical play
  • Peers play
  • Physical play
  • Self-regulation
  • Social play
  • Social-emotional
  • Well-being outcomes
Research discipline:

Hoffmann, J. et al. (2012) Pretend play, creativity, and emotion regulation in children. (Journal Article)

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine relationships among pretend play, creativity, emotion regulation, and executive functioning in children. Pretend play processes were assessed using the Affect in Play Scale (APS), which measures children's cognitive and affective processes, such as organization of a plot or use of emotions. Sixty-one female participants, in kindergarten through fourth grade, were assessed using the APS to measure pretend play ability, a divergent thinking task (the Alternate Uses Test), a storytelling task to assess creativity, a measure of executive functioning (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Short Form; WCST-64), and parent report on the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC). Using correlational analyses, pretend play significantly related to creativity as measured by divergent thinking and storytelling, and related to emotion regulation. Affect expression in play was significantly related to affect expression in storytelling suggesting cross-situational stability. Divergent thinking ability was significantly related to creativity in storytelling. In general the magnitudes of the correlations were of medium effect size. No significant relationships were found with executive functioning. The results of this study support theories that suggest play, creativity, and emotion regulation are linked.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2012
Volume:
6
Page/s:
175-184
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Correlational
  • Creativity
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Pretend play
  • Self-regulation
  • Social-emotional
  • Executive function
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Hyson, M. et al. (2006) Early childhood development and education (Book Section)

Abstract:

This chapter examines the complex relationships between early childhood education programs and child development research. A context for this examination is provided by a case example: the relatively new and still evolving, Vygotskian-influenced tools of the mind curriculum. After an overview of the functions and limitations of developmental theory and research in relation to early childhood education, the chapter focuses on two educationally relevant areas: the development of cognitive essentials, specifically children's representational thinking, self-regulation, and planning, and the development of emotional competence, specifically emotional security and emotion regulation. Principles and research related to the assessment of young children's development and learning are reviewed, with emphasis on assessment within classroom environments. The practical, systemic and policy challenges of linking developmental theory and research with early childhood curriculum and teaching practices are the focus of the final section of the chapter, including the challenges of taking a demonstration program to scale, issues of variability and quality in the system of U.S. early care and education, issues in delivering professional development, challenges of maintaining integrity and coherence, expectations for evidence and accountability, and gaps in the field's knowledge base. The chapter concludes with a summary and recommendations for linking research with practice.

Date:
January 2006
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
4
Page/s:
3-47
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Self-regulation
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:

Jarareh, J. et al. (2016) The impact of group play therapy on creativity and control of aggression in preschool children (Journal Article)

Abstract:

AbstractThe main purpose of conducting this study was to investigate the effectiveness of group play therapy in preschool children’s creativity and aggression control. The research method was experimental along with pretest-posttest design in control group.The sample of study included all preschool students of Dehloran town with a total number of 60 students from preschool students that (30 subjects in experimental group and 30 subjects in control group) were selected by multistage random cluster sampling. The research instruments were Torrance’s creativity questionnaire and aggressiveness questionnaire of Shahim. Their reliability and validity have been confirmed and to analyze the findings, covariance analysis test was used. The major findings of the research indicate that, group play therapy in preschool children’s creativity and aggressionhas a significant effect on the level of 0.01 and it enhances creativity and reduces aggression in preschool children.

Date:
January 2016
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
3
Page/s:
1264655
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Creativity
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Experimental
  • Games with rules
  • Mental health
  • Social-emotional
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s: