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Definition

Barnett, L. (1991) The playful child: Measurement of a disposition to play (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Discusses the psychometric properties of the Children's Playfulness Scale (CPS; L. A. Barnett; see record 1991-11480-001). The identification of 5 underlying components of the playfulness construct (physical spontaneity, social spontaneity, cognitive spontaneity, manifest joy, and sense of humor) are specified and validated. Factor-analytic procedures confirmed the existence of the general playfulness factor and the 5 dimensions, and reproduced the same factor structure and pattern across independent samples and raters and across 2 types of response format. The relationship between the CPS and other extant play measures was explored. The CPS appears to be a viable measure of young children's playful predispositions.

Author/s:
Date:
January 1991
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
4
Page/s:
51-74
Synonyms:
  • Play assessment
  • Playfulness
  • Scale validation
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Bateson, P. et al. (2013) Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation (Book)

Abstract:

What roles do playful behaviour and playful thought take in animal
and human development? How does play relate to creativity and, in
turn, to innovation?
Unravelling the different meanings of play, this book focuses on
non-aggressive playful play. The authors emphasise its significance for
development and evolution, before examining the importance of
playfulness in creativity. This discussion sheds new light on the links
between creativity and innovation, distinguishing between the
generation of novel behaviour and ideas on the one hand, and the
implementation of these novelties on the other. The authors then turn
to the role of play in the development of the child and to parallels
among play, humour and dreaming, along with the altered states of
consciousness generated by some psychoactive drugs. A final chapter
looks ahead to future research and to what remains to be discovered in this fascinating and important field.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2013
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Creativity
  • Games with rules
  • Humour
  • Playfulness
  • Social play
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Bateson, P. et al. (2014) Playfulness, Ideas, and Creativity: A Survey (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This article investigates whether self-reports about playfulness are related to self-reports about creativity and the alternate uses of objects. An on-line survey was conducted of how people think about themselves. One thousand, five hundred and thirty-six people completed the survey. They were asked whether a variety of statements were very characteristic of themselves through to whether they were very uncharacteristic. Respondents were then asked to offer alternative uses for 2 different objects. Those people who characterized themselves as being playful clearly thought of themselves as being creative. The self-reports of their playfulness, creativity, and innovation were positively correlated with each other and were validated with their suggested uses for 2 different objects. Personality measures were derived from the respondents' self-assessments. On the openness scale, the measure was positively correlated with the respondents' assessments of their own playfulness and with the number of alternative uses for two objects.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2014
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
26
Page/s:
219-222
Synonyms:
  • Correlational
  • Creativity
  • Playfulness
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Brooker, L. et al. (2014) SAGE Handbook of Play and Learning in Early Childhood (Book)

Abstract:

'This Handbook offers diverse perspectives from scholars across the globe who help us see play in new ways. At the same time the basic nature of play gives a context for us to learn new theoretical frameworks and methods. A real gem!'
- Beth Graue, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Wisconsin Center for Education Research, USA

Play and learning scholarship has developed considerably over the last decade, as has the recognition of its importance to children’s learning and development.

Containing chapters from highly respected researchers, whose work has been critical to building knowledge and expertise in the field, this Handbook focuses on examining historical, current and future research issues in play and learning scholarship.

Organized into three sections which consider:

theoretical and philosophical perspectives on play and learning
play in pedagogy, curriculum and assessment
play contexts.

The Handbook's breadth, clarity and rigor will make it essential reading for researchers and postgraduate students, as well as professionals with interest in this dynamic and changing field.

Liz Brooker is Reader in Early Childhood in the Faculty of Children and Learning at the Institute of Education, University of London.

Mindy Blaise is an Associate Professor of Early Childhood Education in the Department of Early Childhood Education at the Hong Kong Institute of Education.

Susan Edwards is Associate Professor in Curriculum and Pedagogy at Australian Catholic University.

Date:
January 2014
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Cultural context
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Digital play
  • Learning
  • Outdoor play
  • Physical play
  • Play assessment
  • Playful learning
  • Playfulness
  • Playground
  • Pretend play

Fallon, J. et al. (2013) Free play time of children with learning disabilities in a noninclusive preschool setting: An analysis of play and nonplay behaviours. (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Some children with disabilities go to special preschools where adults help them play. The adults who work in preschools sometimes ask occupational therapists for advice to help children play more. Occupational therapists need to know how children play when not helped by adults. This study videoed children playing both with lots of toys and without toys to see how they chose to play. Within the Republic of Ireland, young children with learning disabilities may attend special preschools where they do not share any part of their day with typically developing children. Within these settings, preschool staff support children's play. Clinicians such as occupational therapists may be called upon to assist in progressing their play. To provide appropriate recommendations, occupational therapists must have a clear understanding of what play a child with learning disabilities engages in when not supported by adults. Occupational therapy literature described play as the most common occupation of children with a focus on process‐driven activity. This may be at odds with a model of early intervention, where play is often product‐driven, with the end goal in mind. The aim of this research was to establish what free play, if any, children with learning disabilities engage in when not supported by adults in an Irish preschool setting. Secondly, this study sought to describe what behaviours these children engage in when they were not playing. Finally, this study sought to establish inter‐rater reliability of the Revised Know Preschool Play Scale with this small sample. Systematic observation was used to explore the play and nonplay behaviours of the children involved. A convenience sample was used to identify five children to participate in the study. Results indicated that children engaged in free play within the sensory motor stage of development, as assessed using the Revised Knox Preschool Play Scale. They also spent significant time in nonplay behaviours. The behaviour patterns of the children and time spent in different activities were explored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Author/s:
Date:
January 2013
Volume:
41
Page/s:
212-219
Synonyms:
  • Atypical development
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Engagement
  • Exploratory play
  • Free play
  • Object play
  • Playfulness
  • Pretend play
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Gray, P. (2009) Play as a foundation for hunter-gatherer social existence (Journal Article)

Abstract:
Author/s:
Date:
January 2009
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
1
Page/s:
476–522
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Free play
  • Games with rules
  • Humour
  • Literature review
  • Physical play
  • Playfulness
  • Pretend play
  • Pro-social behaviour
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Howard, J. et al. (2013) The impact of children's perception of an activity as play rather than not play on emotional well-being (Journal Article)

Abstract:

BackgroundAs an important aspect of health and development, a number of policy and practice initiatives across education, health and social care are aimed at increasing children's emotional well-being. Links have been made between young children's emotional well-being and play although empirical evidence is limited. This paper demonstrates that when children perceive an activity as play, they show more signs of emotional well-being than when they perceive the same activity as not play.MethodsOne hundred and twenty-nine children aged between 3 and 5 years participated in the study. The cues children use to differentiate play and not play were used to create an activity session that was ‘like play’ and an activity session that was ‘not like play’. The activity itself remained constant. Children were allocated to either of the activity session types alternately and emotional well-being was measured using the Leuvens Involvement Scale.ResultsThere was a significant difference in the level of emotional well-being displayed by children in the two activity session types. Children who undertook the ‘like play’ activity scored significantly higher than children who undertook the same activity but ‘not like play’. Detailed observational analysis also showed increased behavioural indicators relating to emotional well-being among children participating in the ‘like play’ rather than ‘not like play’ activity session.ConclusionChildren demonstrate increased emotional well-being when they perceive an activity as play rather than not play. Findings support the proposition that play can be seen as an observable behaviour but also as a mental state. As well as providing important evidence as to the value of play for enhancing children's emotional well-being, findings are discussed in relation to professional practice in children's services. The paper highlights the training needs of practitioners to enable them to understand children's views about play and use this information to create playful situations which maximize the developmental potential of play.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2013
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
39
Page/s:
737-742
Synonyms:
  • Mental health
  • Playfulness
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Jung, J. (2011) Caregivers' playfulness and infants' emotional stress during transitional time (Journal Article)

Abstract:
Author/s:
Date:
December 2011
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
181
Page/s:
1397-1407
Keyword/s:
Synonyms:
  • Playfulness
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Kim, M. et al. (2012) The Development and Validity of the Children's Playfulness Rating Scale (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to develop a Children`s Playfulness Rating Scale(CPRS) and to analyze it in terms of item discrimination, validity, and reliability. The participants in this study consisted of 861 parents whose children were aged from three to six years old. The item discrimination, determined by comparing the highest and lowest group using , Cramer`s V, was found to be satisfactory. The reliability of factors, as measured by Cronbach`s , ranged from .85 to .95. The results of factor analysis identified 4 factors and 35 items were then selected from the 45 items in the original scale. The four factors identified were as follows; (1) leading participation (2) cognitive flexibility (3) expression of joy (4) voluntary full immersion. Concurrent validity was also established by using correlations between the CPRS and CPS(Children`s Playfulness Scale). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the Children`s Playfulness Rating Scale is both reliable and valid.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2012
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
33
Page/s:
69-89
Synonyms:
  • Play assessment
  • Playfulness
  • Scale validation
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Lieberman, J. (1965) Playfulness and Divergent Thinking: An Investigation of their Relationship at the Kindergarten Level (Journal Article)

Abstract:
Author/s:
Date:
January 1965
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
107
Page/s:
219-224
Synonyms:
  • Correlational
  • Creativity
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Play assessment
  • Playfulness
Relevant age group/s: