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PlayFutures, . et al. (2018) PlayFutures webinar with PEDAL: Playing with infants and toddlers (Video Recording)

Abstract:

Listen to Dr Vicky Leong, Dr Ciara Lavery and Dr Melissa Scarpate talk about playing with infants and toddlers in this webinar hosted by PlayFutures.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2018
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Creativity
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Language
  • Pretend play
  • Problem-solving
  • Symbolic play
Relevant age group/s:

Ramani, G. et al. (2014) Preschoolers’ cooperative problem solving: Integrating play and problem solving (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children’s cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are not as consistently beneficial to young children’s cognitive growth as they are for school-age children. In contrast, both theory and empirical research suggest that social play like that seen in early childhood classrooms is a context in which young children gain critical knowledge from peer cooperation. However, these contexts differ in how much they allow children to create and sustain their own joint goals, which likely influences their learning from cooperative interactions in experimental settings. Features of cooperative social play that allow preschool children to create joint goals are considered, and suggestions for future research are proposed to integrate these features into experimental settings in order to provide a fuller understanding of the development of cooperative problem solving in young children and its benefits.

Date:
January 2014
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
12
Page/s:
92-108
Synonyms:
  • Cooperative play
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Learning
  • Literature review
  • Peers play
  • Problem-solving
  • Social play
Relevant age group/s:

Vandenburg, B. (1990) Play and Problem Solving; An Elusive Connection (Journal Article)

Abstract:

The hypothesis tested was that play provides the opportunity to observe features of the environment which are likely to be overlooked in more goal directed encounters with the environment. Children (n = 45), ages 5 to 8 years, were randomly assigned to a play group, a narrow-focus goal-directed group, or a broad-focus goal-directed group. Children in the broad-focus group recalled and recognized significantly more features of the environment than did the other two groups. The narrow-focus group traversed more of the environment than the other groups, yet recognized and recalled the least number of objects, suggesting that exposure per se is not a critical element. Further comparisons indicated that one advantage of the broad-focus group was the opportunity to touch more objects, although the psychological nature of the touch (e.g., goal-directed vs. play) had little impact on subsequent task performance.

Author/s:
Date:
January 1990
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
36
Page/s:
261-272
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Experimental
  • Free play
  • Object play
  • Problem-solving
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Walker, C. et al. (2013) Pretense and possibility—A theoretical proposal about the effects of pretend play on development: Comment on Lillard et al. (2013). (Journal Article)

Abstract:

The review by Lillard et al. (2013) highlighted the need for additional research to better clarify the nature of the relationship between pretend play and development. However, the authors did not provide a proposal for how to structure the direction of this future work. Here, we provide a possible framework for generating additional research. This theoretical proposal is based on recent computational approaches to cognition, in which counterfactual reasoning plays a central role in causal learning. We propose that pretend play initially emerges as a product of the cognitive mechanisms underlying human learning and then feeds back to become critical for enhancing the optimal functioning of these same processes. More specifically, we argue that pretending is in fact 1 of several forms of counterfactual reasoning, which is essential to causal cognition—and that the act of engaging in pretend scenarios may provide early opportunities to practice the skills that were initially responsible for its appearance. Here, we provide a brief overview of this theoretical framework, consider how these ideas may be integrated with the previous work covered in Lillard et al.'s (2013) review, and suggest some empirically testable questions to direct future directions.

Date:
January 2013
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
139
Page/s:
40-44
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Learning
  • Literature review
  • Pretend play
  • Problem-solving
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Walker, C. et al. (2013) Pretense and possibility—A theoretical proposal about the effects of pretend play on development: Comment on Lillard et al. (2013) (Journal Article)

Abstract:

The review by Lillard et al. (2013) highlighted the need for additional research to better clarify the nature of the relationship between pretend play and development. However, the authors did not provide a proposal for how to structure the direction of this future work. Here, we provide a possible framework for generating additional research. This theoretical proposal is based on recent computational approaches to cognition, in which counterfactual reasoning plays a central role in causal learning. We propose that pretend play initially emerges as a product of the cognitive mechanisms underlying human learning and then feeds back to become critical for enhancing the optimal functioning of these same processes. More specifically, we argue that pretending is in fact 1 of several forms of counterfactual reasoning, which is essential to causal cognition—and that the act of engaging in pretend scenarios may provide early opportunities to practice the skills that were initially responsible for its appearance. Here, we provide a brief overview of this theoretical framework, consider how these ideas may be integrated with the previous work covered in Lillard et al.'s (2013) review, and suggest some empirically testable questions to direct future directions.

Date:
January 2013
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
139
Page/s:
40-44
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Learning
  • Pretend play
  • Problem-solving
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Whitebread, D. (1996) The development of children's strategies on an inductive reasoning task (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This paper reports an analysis of children's cognitive strategies on an inductive reasoning task, by means of a new methodological approach. A sample of 72 children aged 6, 8 and 10 were presented with three different versions of a multidimensional discrimination learning task, which was presented in such a way as to ‘optimise’ their performance. Their responses were analysed in terms of 10 Strategy Components, scores on which were analysed by means of cluster analysis. Overall, the children performed at more sophisticated levels than previously found. Five Strategy Clusters representing distinct patterns of strategic behaviour were revealed. A developmental sequence was established between these patterns of strategic behaviour and, significantly, two alternative developmental routes relating to strategic style. While the results support a complex model of strategy construction, as revealed by recent research, the distinct nature of the Strategy Clusters points to a discontinuous model of strategy development. This evidence of children's differing abilities to construct and select appropriate strategies in relation to a novel task strongly supports the educational imperative of encouraging children's early use and awareness of cognitive strategies.

Author/s:
Date:
January 1996
Volume:
66
Page/s:
1-21
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Problem-solving
  • Self-regulation
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Whitebread, D. (1999) Interactions between children's metacognitive abilities, working memory capacity, strategies and performance during problem-solving (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This paper reports two related studies intended to explore the interactions between children's metacognitive abilities, their working memory capacity, the development and selection of strategies and their performance on problem-solving tasks. In the first study, a sample of 20 children aged 5 and 6 were presented with a reclassification task. In the second study, a sample of 72 children aged 6, 8 and 10 were presented with a multidimensional discrimination learning (MDL) task. Data was collected related to the children's metacognitive abilities, working memory capacity, response strategies and task performance. The results indicated that performance on both tasks was dependent upon developmentally changing interactions between these various aspects of cognitive functioning. In particular, the relationship of working memory capacity to performance was dependent upon metacognitive abilities. The results also suggested that metacognitive awareness did not directly affect performance, but that such a relationship was dependent upon the development of strategic control. The implications of these results for understanding U-shaped behavioural growth and other common developmental patterns are discussed. Within the educational sphere, the study emphasises the significance and possibility for children as learners of fostering certain kinds of metacognitive ability. Cet article rapporte les résultats de deux recherches destinées à explorer les interactions entre capacités métacognitives de l'enfant, capacité de la mémoire de travail, développement et sélection de stratégies, et performances à des tâches de résolution de problème. Dans la première étude, un échantillon de 20 enfants âgés de 5 ou 6 ans, était soumis à une tâche de reclassification. Dans la deuxième recherche, un échantillon de 72 enfants âgés de 6, 8 ou 10 ans était confronté à une tâche d'apprentissage de discrimination multidimensionnelle. Les résultats montrent que les performances aux deux tâches, dépendent des changements développementaux dans l'interaction entre les différents aspects du fonctionnement cognitif cités plus haut et mesurés dans cette recherche. En particulier, les relations entre mémoire de travail et performance dépendent des compétences métacognitives. Les résultats montrent aussi que la conscience métacognitive n'affecte pas directement les performances, mais que la relation entre les deux dépend du développement du contrôle stratégiques. Les explications des ces résultats pour l'interprétation des patrons de développement courants ou des évolutions en forme de U sont discutées. Dans le champ de l'éducation, l'étude contribue à mettre en valeur l'intérêt et la possibiblité d'encourager le développement de certains types de capacités métacognitives.

Author/s:
Date:
January 1999
Volume:
14
Page/s:
489-507
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Metacognition
  • Problem-solving
  • Self-regulation
  • Working memory
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline: