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Definition

Barnett, L. (1991) The playful child: Measurement of a disposition to play (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Discusses the psychometric properties of the Children's Playfulness Scale (CPS; L. A. Barnett; see record 1991-11480-001). The identification of 5 underlying components of the playfulness construct (physical spontaneity, social spontaneity, cognitive spontaneity, manifest joy, and sense of humor) are specified and validated. Factor-analytic procedures confirmed the existence of the general playfulness factor and the 5 dimensions, and reproduced the same factor structure and pattern across independent samples and raters and across 2 types of response format. The relationship between the CPS and other extant play measures was explored. The CPS appears to be a viable measure of young children's playful predispositions.

Author/s:
Date:
January 1991
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
4
Page/s:
51-74
Synonyms:
  • Play assessment
  • Playfulness
  • Scale validation
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Bulotsky-Shearer, R. et al. (2016) The validity of interactive peer play competencies for Latino preschool children from low-income households (Journal Article)

Abstract:

In accord with a strength-based, eco-cultural model, the present study examined the validity a the Penn Interactive Peer Play Scale-Teacher report (PIPPS-T; Fantuzzo, Coolahan, Mendez, McDermott, & Sutton-Smith, 1998) for use with Latino preschool children from low-income backgrounds. Capitalizing upon a large, statewide sample of Latino children (N=824, M age = 52.54 months (SD = 8.73)), exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified three reliable and distinct dimensions of peer social competence: Play Interaction, Play Disruption, and Play Disconnection. Findings from multilevel models controlling for program, family, and child demographic variables, provided criterion-related validity for the three dimensions with some differential associations to concurrent assessments of children's learning-related and pre-academic skills at the end the Head Start year. Study findings extend prior research, supporting the utility of the PIPPS to assess the construct of peer social competence for Latino children from low-income backgrounds. Implications for early childhood research, practice, and policy are discussed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Date:
January 2016
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
34
Page/s:
78-91
Synonyms:
  • Academic outcomes
  • Cultural context
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Literacy
  • Play assessment
  • Pre-academic skills
  • Scale validation
  • Social play
  • Social-emotional
  • Socio-economic background
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Chessa, D. et al. (2011) The affect in play scale: confirmatory factor analysis in elementary school children (Journal Article)

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to study the construct validity of the Affect in Play Scale, an empirically based measure of pretend play, in a group of 519 Italian children ages 6 to 10 years. In confirmatory factor analysis, a correlated two-factor structure with a cognitive and an affective factor was identified. Possible differences in factor scores by sex and age were investigated but no significant differences were found.

Date:
January 2011
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
109
Page/s:
759-774
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Creativity
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Play assessment
  • Pretend play
  • Scale validation
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Delvecchio, E. et al. (2016) Pretend Play in Italian Children: Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Despite the emerging literature supporting the central role of pretend play for children's cognitive, affective and social development, there is a paucity of standardized and validated measures devoted to assess it, especially for preschoolers. In addition, most of the existing tools failed in their attempt to assess the interplay among the different developmental domains which are involved in playing activities. The Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version is a semi-structured measure to assess cognitive and affective pretend play processes in children aged 4-5 using a 5-min standardized play task. This study was aimed to evaluate the construct and external validity of the scale in a sample of Italian preschoolers. A multi-group factor analysis confirmed the adequacy of the two-factor model with cognitive and affective factor for both 4- and 5-year-old children. No differences were found between boys and girls whereas older children reported higher play abilities. Correlations between pretend play, divergent thinking, teacher's measures of temperament and prosocial behavior were carried out. Results supported the use of APS-P as a valid tool for assessing the interplay of cognitive and affective abilities in Italian children.

Date:
January 2016
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
25
Page/s:
86-95
Synonyms:
  • Play assessment
  • Pretend play
  • Scale validation
  • Symbolic play
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Kim, M. et al. (2012) The Development and Validity of the Children's Playfulness Rating Scale (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to develop a Children`s Playfulness Rating Scale(CPRS) and to analyze it in terms of item discrimination, validity, and reliability. The participants in this study consisted of 861 parents whose children were aged from three to six years old. The item discrimination, determined by comparing the highest and lowest group using , Cramer`s V, was found to be satisfactory. The reliability of factors, as measured by Cronbach`s , ranged from .85 to .95. The results of factor analysis identified 4 factors and 35 items were then selected from the 45 items in the original scale. The four factors identified were as follows; (1) leading participation (2) cognitive flexibility (3) expression of joy (4) voluntary full immersion. Concurrent validity was also established by using correlations between the CPRS and CPS(Children`s Playfulness Scale). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the Children`s Playfulness Rating Scale is both reliable and valid.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2012
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
33
Page/s:
69-89
Synonyms:
  • Play assessment
  • Playfulness
  • Scale validation
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Skard, G. et al. (2008) Test of Playfulness (Book Section)

Abstract:
Date:
January 2008
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
71-93
Synonyms:
  • Parent/Guardian play
  • Play assessment
  • Playfulness
  • Scale validation
Research discipline:

Trevlas, E. et al. (2003) Evaluating Playfulness: Construct Validity of the Children's Playfulness Scale (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This study was designed to examine the underlying structure of the Children's Playfulness Scale (CPS). The CPS was administered to 602 children who were randomly divided into two groups (calibration and validation group). The calibration group (n= 279) included 137 boys and 142 girls, and the validation group (n= 323) included 162 boys and 161 girls, ranging in age from 4 to 6 years. A one-factor model was postulated and supported. According to the model, 5 variables measuring children's playfulness loaded on one factor (playfulness). In addition, the proposed model was found to be invariant across the two groups. Good cross-generalizability of the CPS appears to support its validity. Educators working in a preschool/kindergarten setting may use it with confidence when evaluating children's playfulness.

Date:
January 2003
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
31
Page/s:
33-39
Synonyms:
  • Play assessment
  • Playfulness
  • Scale validation
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline: