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Definition

Akmanoglu, N. et al. (2014) Comparing video modeling and graduated guidance together and video modeling alone for teaching role playing skills to children with autism. (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Teaching play skills is important for children with autism. The purpose of the present study was to compare effectiveness and efficiency of providing video modeling and graduated guidance together and video modeling alone for teaching role playing skills to children with autism. The study was conducted with four students. The study was conducted by using adapted alternative treatments design. Four kinds of data were collected during the study: effectiveness, efficiency, social validity, and reliability. Both teaching methods were found to be effective in teaching target skills to children with autism. Results of the study were compared with the literature and some recommendations were addressed in the study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

Date:
January 2014
Volume:
49
Page/s:
17-31
Synonyms:
  • Atypical development
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Pedagogy
  • Pretend play
  • Social cognition
  • Social play
  • Social-emotional
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Bates, B. et al. (2015) Measures of outdoor play and independent mobility in children and youth: A methodological review (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Objectives
Declines in children's outdoor play have been documented globally, which are partly due to heightened restrictions around children's independent mobility. Literature on outdoor play and children's independent mobility is increasing, yet no paper has summarized the various methodological approaches used. A methodological review could highlight most commonly used measures and comprehensive research designs that could result in more standardized methodological approaches.
Design
Methodological review.
Methods
A standardized protocol guided a methodological review of published research on measures of outdoor play and children's independent mobility in children and youth (0–18 years). Online searches of 8 electronic databases were conducted and studies included if they contained a subjective/objective measure of outdoor play or children's independent mobility. References of included articles were scanned to identify additional articles.
Results
Twenty-four studies were included on outdoor play, and twenty-three on children's independent mobility. Study designs were diverse. Common objective measures included accelerometry, global positioning systems and direct observation; questionnaires, surveys and interviews were common subjective measures. Focus groups, activity logs, monitoring sheets, travel/activity diaries, behavioral maps and guided tours were also utilized. Questionnaires were used most frequently, yet few studies used the same questionnaire. Five studies employed comprehensive, mixed-methods designs.
Conclusions
Outdoor play and children's independent mobility have been measured using a wide variety of techniques, with only a few studies using similar methodologies. A standardized methodological approach does not exist. Future researchers should consider including both objective measures (accelerometry and global positioning systems) and subjective measures (questionnaires, activity logs, interviews), as more comprehensive designs will enhance understanding of each multidimensional construct. Creating a standardized methodological approach would improve study comparisons.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2015
Volume:
18
Page/s:
545-552
Synonyms:
  • Literature review
  • Outdoor play
  • Physical health
  • Physical play
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Bateson, P. et al. (2013) Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation (Book)

Abstract:

What roles do playful behaviour and playful thought take in animal
and human development? How does play relate to creativity and, in
turn, to innovation?
Unravelling the different meanings of play, this book focuses on
non-aggressive playful play. The authors emphasise its significance for
development and evolution, before examining the importance of
playfulness in creativity. This discussion sheds new light on the links
between creativity and innovation, distinguishing between the
generation of novel behaviour and ideas on the one hand, and the
implementation of these novelties on the other. The authors then turn
to the role of play in the development of the child and to parallels
among play, humour and dreaming, along with the altered states of
consciousness generated by some psychoactive drugs. A final chapter
looks ahead to future research and to what remains to be discovered in this fascinating and important field.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2013
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Creativity
  • Games with rules
  • Humour
  • Playfulness
  • Social play
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Blair, C. (2002) Early intervention for low birth weight, preterm infants: The role of negative emotionality in the specification of effects (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This study examined the relation of negative emotionality in infancy to child social and cognitive developmental outcomes among low birth weight (LBW) preterm infants participating in the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), a comprehensive compensatory education intervention beginning in infancy and lasting through age 3 years. In this analysis, intervention effects at age 36 months on maternal report of child behavior as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist externalizing and internalizing scales and on intelligence as measured by the Stanford–Binet scale were largest among children characterized by higher levels of negative emotionality in infancy. Findings indicate that for LBW preterm infants characterized by negative emotionality at age 12 months the intervention was associated with a twofold decrease in the occurrence of clinically meaningful levels of behavior problems at age 3 years and a fourfold decrease in the occurrence of a high-risk profile in which both internalizing and externalizing scores are in the clinically meaningful range. The intervention was also associated with a fivefold decrease in the occurrence of IQ ≤ 75 at age 3 years among children with higher levels of negative emotionality and heavier LBW (2001–2500 g). However, specific aspects of temperamental difficulty such as fearfulness and anger were related to internalizing and externalizing, respectively, in both the intervention and control groups. Findings are consistent with research linking negative emotionality in infancy with social and cognitive developmental outcomes in early childhood among normal birth weight infants. Results suggest the need for further attention to child temperament in early intervention research.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2002
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
14
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Experimental
  • Mental health
  • Physical health
  • Self-regulation
  • Social-emotional
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Brockman, R. et al. (2010) The contribution of active play to the physical activity of primary school children (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Objective
To examine associations between active play and the physical activity of 10- to 11-year-old children.
Method
Cross-sectional study of 747, 10- tot11-year-olds, conducted between February 2008 and March 2009 in Bristol, UK. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and mean activity levels (counts per minute, CPM) were assessed by accelerometer. Frequency of active play was self-reported.
Results
Regression models indicated that frequent active play (5 or more days per week) was associated with mean daily activity levels (CPM) (girls: p = < 0.01; boys: p = <0.01), but was only associated with mean daily MVPA for girls (p = < 0.01). For leisure-time physical activity, active play was associated with children's CPM (girls: p = 0.02; boys: p = < 0.01) and MVPA (girls: p = < 0.01; boys: p = 0.03) on weekdays after school, but was only associated with weekend day CPM for boys (p =<0.01).
Conclusion
Active play is associated with children's physical activity with after-school potentially being a critical period. Strategies to promote active play may prove to be a successful means of increasing children's physical activity.

Date:
January 2010
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
51
Page/s:
144-147
Synonyms:
  • Free play
  • Outdoor play
  • Physical health
  • Physical play
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Bruce, T. et al. (2008) I made a unicorn. Open-ended play with blocks and simple materials (Report)

Abstract:

Open-ended play with blocks and simple materials

Although children's play just happens spontaneously, it is complex and comes in myriad forms.
One universal type is open-ended play, also known as free-flow play, in which the children themselves determine what to do, how to do it, and what to use. Open-ended means not having a fixed answer; unrestricted; allowing for future change. In the course of such play, children have no fear of doing it wrong since there is no correct method or outcome; and observant adults are privileged with insights into children's development and thinking.

Open-ended play is intrinsic to childhood; children have an impetus to explore and create. When free to experiment with the simplest materials, they find ways to express and develop their thoughts in imaginative play.

Date:
January 2008
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Free play
  • Learning
  • Object play
  • Outdoor play
  • Pretend play
  • Well-being outcomes
  • Construction play
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Burns-Nader, S. et al. (2013) Play and video effects on mood and procedure behaviors in school-aged children visiting the pediatrician (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This study examines how different types of activities, including medical play, typical play, and videos, affect the mood and behaviors of children visiting a pediatric office. Seventy-two school-aged children visiting a pediatrician's office were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: medical play, medical information video, typical play, and nonmedical information video control. Children completed a mood self-report measure and their behaviors were recorded during triage by nurses. The medical information video improved the school-aged children's mood. Children in the medical information video displayed less difficult behaviors during procedures than the medical play group. The findings suggest that providing information about medical equipment through a video of a child engaging in medical play may benefit children visiting the pediatrician.

Date:
January 2013
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
52
Page/s:
929-935
Synonyms:
  • Games with rules
  • Mental health
  • Physical health
  • Pretend play
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Carver, A. et al. (2008) Playing it safe: The influence of neighbourhood safety on children's physical activity—A review (Journal Article)

Abstract:
Date:
January 2008
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
14
Page/s:
217-227
Synonyms:
  • Literature review
  • Outdoor play
  • Physical health
  • Physical play
  • Playground
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

EIF, . (2017) Early Intervention Foundation (Web Page)

Abstract:

Early intervention is about taking action as soon as possible to tackle problems for children and families before they become more difficult to reverse.
We focus on conception to early adulthood because intervention is not just about the early years but also about preventing adolescents and young adults from developing problems.
When a young person is developing and growing up, this is a crucial opportunity to provide them with the skills and support they need. It is much more difficult if they have dropped out of school, become involved with youth crime or developed a serious mental health problem.
Early intervention involves identifying children and families that may be at risk of running into difficulties and providing timely and effective support.
We want every family to develop an intergenerational cycle of positive parenting, relationships and behaviour.
Early intervention is about enhancing the capabilities of every parent to provide a supportive and enriching environment for their children to grow up in. Then the next generation has the best chance to flourish with the skills to engage in positive parenting themselves.
Its purpose is to improve the life chances of children and families and benefit society at large, whilst being cost-effective.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2017
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • At-risk
  • Mental health
  • Non-profit
  • Socio-economic background
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Fearn, M. et al. (2012) Play as a Resource for Children Facing Adversity: An Exploration of Indicative Case Studies (Journal Article)

Abstract:

In this paper, we suggest that the ability and opportunity to play affords children a natural resource to meet intellectual and emotional challenge. Analysis of case studies focusing on interventions with children caught in the bombing of Beirut, children abandoned to the state system in Romania, and the street children in Rio de Janeiro and Cali is used to support this view. When resources are in deficit, challenge is more likely to become adversity. The impact of adversity is particular to context, but comparison across contexts also shows connections between children’s disparate experiences. Analysis confirms that given the opportunity, children interact with and influence their environment through play and that this process provides a resource to meet the challenge of adversity.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2012
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
26
Page/s:
456-468
Synonyms:
  • Exploratory play
  • Games with rules
  • Mental health
  • Pretend play
  • Socio-economic background
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline: