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Baruni, R. et al. (2014) Using lag schedules to increase toy play variability for children with intellectual disabilities (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Relatively few studies have evaluated procedures for increasing play skills in children with intellectual disabilities. To address this limitation, this study evaluated the extent to which lag schedules increased novel toy play responses for three children who exhibited little or no appropriate toy play. Results show that the lag 1 schedule increased toy play variability for all three participants and the lag 2 schedule produced very little additional variability for the two participants exposed to this condition. The results of a social validity assessment suggest that classroom paraprofessionals (i) perceived the participants' toy play as typical and (ii) were satisfied with the outcomes produced by the lag schedules. We discuss the clinical implications and the potential limitations of the findings. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Date:
January 2014
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
29
Page/s:
21-35
Synonyms:
  • Atypical development
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Brockman, R. et al. (2010) The contribution of active play to the physical activity of primary school children (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Objective
To examine associations between active play and the physical activity of 10- to 11-year-old children.
Method
Cross-sectional study of 747, 10- tot11-year-olds, conducted between February 2008 and March 2009 in Bristol, UK. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and mean activity levels (counts per minute, CPM) were assessed by accelerometer. Frequency of active play was self-reported.
Results
Regression models indicated that frequent active play (5 or more days per week) was associated with mean daily activity levels (CPM) (girls: p = < 0.01; boys: p = <0.01), but was only associated with mean daily MVPA for girls (p = < 0.01). For leisure-time physical activity, active play was associated with children's CPM (girls: p = 0.02; boys: p = < 0.01) and MVPA (girls: p = < 0.01; boys: p = 0.03) on weekdays after school, but was only associated with weekend day CPM for boys (p =<0.01).
Conclusion
Active play is associated with children's physical activity with after-school potentially being a critical period. Strategies to promote active play may prove to be a successful means of increasing children's physical activity.

Date:
January 2010
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
51
Page/s:
144-147
Synonyms:
  • Free play
  • Outdoor play
  • Physical health
  • Physical play
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Burns-Nader, S. et al. (2013) Play and video effects on mood and procedure behaviors in school-aged children visiting the pediatrician (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This study examines how different types of activities, including medical play, typical play, and videos, affect the mood and behaviors of children visiting a pediatric office. Seventy-two school-aged children visiting a pediatrician's office were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: medical play, medical information video, typical play, and nonmedical information video control. Children completed a mood self-report measure and their behaviors were recorded during triage by nurses. The medical information video improved the school-aged children's mood. Children in the medical information video displayed less difficult behaviors during procedures than the medical play group. The findings suggest that providing information about medical equipment through a video of a child engaging in medical play may benefit children visiting the pediatrician.

Date:
January 2013
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
52
Page/s:
929-935
Synonyms:
  • Games with rules
  • Mental health
  • Physical health
  • Pretend play
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Dignath, C. et al. (2008) How can primary school students learn self-regulated learning strategies most effectively? (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Recently, research has increasingly focused on fostering self-regulated learning amongst young children. To consider this trend, this article presents the results of a differentiated meta-analysis of 48 treatment comparisons resulting from 30 articles on enhancing self-regulated learning amongst primary school students. Based on recent models of self-regulated learning, which consider motivational, as well as cognitive, and metacognitive aspects [Boekaerts, M. (1999). Self-regulated learning: Where we are today. International Journal of Educational research, 31(6), 445–457], the effects of self-regulated learning on academic achievement, on cognitive and metacognitive strategy application, as well as on motivation were analyzed. As the results show, self-regulated learning training programmes proved to be effective, even at primary school level. Subsequent analysis tested for the effects of several moderator variables, which consisted of study features and training characteristics. Regarding factors that concern the content of the treatment, the impact of the theoretical background that underlies the intervention was tested, as well as the type of cognitive, metacognitive, or motivational strategy which were instructed, and if group work was used as instruction method. Training context related factors, which were included in the analyses consisted of students’ grade level, the length of the training, if teachers or researchers directed the intervention, as well as the school subject in which context the training took place. Following the results of these analyses, a list with the most effective training characteristics was provided.

Date:
January 2008
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
3
Page/s:
101-129
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Learning
  • Meta-analysis
  • Metacognition
  • Self-regulation
Relevant age group/s:

Feda, D. et al. (2012) Effect of increasing the choice of active options on children's physically active play (Journal Article)

Abstract:

bjectives: To determine whether increasing the choice of physical activity options increases the duration and intensity of children's physically active play. Design: This cross-sectional laboratory study included gender (male and female) and choice group [single toy (no choice), three toys (low choice), five toys (high choice)] as between participant factors. Methods: Boys and girls (. n=. 36, 8-12. y) were stratified, randomly assigned to a choice group that always provided access to each participant's most liked active toy(s), and allowed 60. min of free time. The same sedentary alternatives were freely available to all participants. Physical activity outcomes were measured by accelerometry, heart rate, and direct observation. Results: The number of active toys the children played with increased (. p<. 0.001) across each choice group. Minutes spent in MPA were greater in the low choice (. p<. 0.05) and high choice (. p<. 0.02) groups than the no choice group. Active playtime was greater (. p<. 0.01) in the low choice (79%) and high choice (95%) groups compared to the no choice group. Girls in the low and high choice groups had greater (. p<. 0.05) percent heart rate reserve when compared to girls in the no choice group. There was no difference in the boys' percent heart rate reserve between the no choice, low choice and high choice groups. Conclusions: Increasing the choice of active toys increases both the duration and intensity of physically active play, especially in girls. © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia.

Date:
January 2012
Volume:
15
Page/s:
334-340
Synonyms:
  • Experimental
  • Free play
  • Object play
  • Physical health
  • Physical play
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Fromberg, D. et al. (2006) Play from Birth to Twelve (Book)

Abstract:

In light of recent standards-based and testing movements, the issue of play in childhood has taken on increased meaning for educational professionals and social scientists. This second edition of Play From Birth to Twelve offers comprehensive coverage of what we now know about play, its guiding principles, its dynamics and importance in early learning. These up-to-date essays, written by some of the most distinguished experts in the field, help students explore:
all aspects of play, including new approaches not yet covered in the literature
how teachers in various classroom situations set up and guide play to facilitate learning
how play is affected by societal violence, media reportage, technological innovations and other contemporary issues
which areas of play have been studied adequately and which require further research.

Date:
January 2006
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Cultural context
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Games with rules
  • Humour
  • Language
  • Learning
  • Object play
  • Outdoor play
  • Peers play
  • Physical play
  • Pretend play
  • Social play
  • Social-emotional

Gibson, J. et al. (2011) Quantifying peer interactions for research and clinical use: The Manchester Inventory for Playground Observation (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Direct observation of peer relating is potentially a sensitive and ecologically valid measure of child social functioning, but there has been a lack of standardised methods. The Manchester Inventory for Playground Observation (MIPO) was developed as a practical yet rigorous assessment of this kind for 5–11 year olds. We report on the initial reliability and validity of the MIPO and its ability to distinguish social impairments within different psychopathologies. We observed 144 clinically referred children aged 5;00–11;11 (mean 8.8) years with Externalising (n=44), Internalising (n=19), Autism Spectrum Disorders (n=39) or Specific Language Impairment (n=42), and 44 class-controls, in naturalistic playground interaction. Observers, blind to clinical diagnosis, completed the MIPO and the teacher checklist from the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). MIPO items showed high internal consistency (alpha=.924; all ‘alpha if item deleted’ values>.91), inter-observer reliability (mean κw=.77) and test–retest stability (over 2 weeks; mean κw=.58). MIPO totals showed convergence with SSRS (n=68, rs=.78, p<.01) and excellent discrimination between case and control (sensitivity=0.75 and specificity=0.88, AUC=.897). Externalising, Autistic Spectrum and Language Impaired groups showed distinct profiles of MIPO impairment consistent with theory:Internalising disorders less so. 65.3% of clinical cases were classified accurately for primary diagnosis. The MIPO shows reliability and validity as a measure of children's social functioning relevant in developmental research and as a clinical tool to aid differential diagnosis and intervention planning.

Date:
January 2011
Volume:
32
Page/s:
2458-2466
Synonyms:
  • Atypical development
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Peers play
  • Play assessment
  • Playground
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Gibson, J. et al. (2017) A Systematic Review of Research into the Impact of Loose Parts Play on Children’s Cognitive, Social and Emotional Development (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Loose parts play (LPP) interventions introduce moveable materials and equipment to children’s play spaces to facilitate unstructured, child-led play. Meta-analysis of previous school-based research has shown significant benefits of LPP for physical activity. In the current paper, we review the scope and quality of the quantitative evidence relating to cognitive, social and emotional outcomes. We conducted a systematic search of the literature on LPP interventions for primary school-aged children which used quantitative outcome indicators for cognitive, social and/or emotional development. Studies were screened for inclusion by two independent researchers and reviewed for content, relevant outcomes and quality indicators. Five studies met the review inclusion criteria. Two studies used a randomised controlled trial design, two studies used quasi-experimental design, and one used an observational design. Outcomes measured focused mainly on social development. With the exception of enjoyment, school satisfaction and self-esteem, emotional outcomes were almost entirely absent. No measures of cognitive or academic outcomes were found. For the studies using control groups, few differences between groups were reported, although one study found increased happiness at school and increased odds of reporting being pushed/shoved at playtime associated with intervention. Null results were found for peer acceptance, relational bullying, social competence, social skills, peer group size and psychosocial quality of life. In the non-controlled study, there were observed increases in co-operative play. There is insufficient high-quality, quantitative, empirical evidence available to determine whether or not LPP interventions have an impact on children’s cognitive, social and emotional development. We conclude our review with some recommendations which we hope will assist future research in this promising field.

Date:
January 2017
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
9
Page/s:
295-309
Keyword/s:
Synonyms:
  • Social-emotional

Holt, N. et al. (2008) Neighborhood and developmental differences in children's perceptions of opportunities for play and physical activity (Journal Article)

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to examine perceptions of places to play and be physically active among children from two different urban neighborhoods, and evaluate these perceptions for age-related developmental differences. One hundred and sixty-eight children from grades K-6 (aged 6–12 years old) completed mental maps depicting places where they could play and be physically active. The children were recruited from schools in two neighborhoods—one a high-walkability (H-W) grid-style neighborhood, the other a low-walkability (L-W) lollipop-style (i.e., cul-de-sacs) neighborhood. Analysis revealed that children in the H-W neighborhood depicted more active transportation and less non-active transportation than children in the L-W neighborhood. Children in the lowest grades (K-2) in the L-W neighborhood depicted more play in the home/yard environment than the oldest children, more good weather image events than children in Grades 3–6, and less play outside the home/yard environment than children in Grades 3 and 4. In the H-W neighborhood, the youngest children (K-2) depicted significantly less play in the home/yard environment and less play outside the home/yard environment than older children (Grades 3–6). Thus, both the type of urban neighborhood and children's age moderated perceptions of places to play and be physically active.

Date:
January 2008
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
14
Page/s:
2-14
Synonyms:
  • Outdoor play
  • Physical health
  • Physical play
  • Playground
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Karpov, Y. (2005) The Neo-Vygotskian Approach to Child Development (Book)

Abstract:

THE NEO-VYGOTSKIAN APPROACH TO CHILD DEVELOPMENT
For the first time, the neo-Vygotskian approach to child development is intro- duced to English-speaking readers. Russian followers of Vygotsky have elaborated his ideas into a theory that integrates cognitive, motivational, and social aspects of child development with an emphasis on the role of children’s activity as mediated by adults in their development. This theory has become the basis for an innova- tive analysis of periods in child development and of the mechanism of children’s transitions from one period to the next. In this book, the discussion of the neo- Vygotskians’ approach to child development is supported by a review of their em- pirical data, much of which have never before been available to English-speaking readers. The discussion is also supported by a review of recent empirical find- ings ofWestern researchers, which are highly consistent with the neo-Vygotskian analysis of child development.
Yuriy V. Karpov is Professor and Associate Dean at the Graduate School of Education and Psychology of Touro College. He did his undergraduate and grad- uate studies and then worked as a faculty member at the School of Psychology of Moscow State University, the center of Vygotsky-based studies in the former Soviet Union. His studies on the implementation of Vygotsky’s ideas in educa- tion, psychological assessment, and the analysis of child development have been published as books, chapters, and journal articles in Russian, English, and Spanish.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2005
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Cultural context
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Object play
  • Parent/Guardian play
  • Peers play
  • Pretend play
  • Social-emotional
Research discipline: