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Abstract:
Author/s:
Date:
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Cooperative play
  • Creativity
  • Exploratory play
  • Functional play
  • Games with rules
  • Humour
  • Learning
  • Literacy
  • Mental health
  • Numeracy
  • Object play
  • Parallel play
  • Physical health
  • Physical play
  • Pretend play
  • Rough and tumble
  • Semiotic play
  • Sibling play
  • Social play
  • Solitary play
  • Symbolic play
  • Executive function
Research discipline:

Bateson, P. et al. (2013) Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation (Book)

Abstract:

What roles do playful behaviour and playful thought take in animal
and human development? How does play relate to creativity and, in
turn, to innovation?
Unravelling the different meanings of play, this book focuses on
non-aggressive playful play. The authors emphasise its significance for
development and evolution, before examining the importance of
playfulness in creativity. This discussion sheds new light on the links
between creativity and innovation, distinguishing between the
generation of novel behaviour and ideas on the one hand, and the
implementation of these novelties on the other. The authors then turn
to the role of play in the development of the child and to parallels
among play, humour and dreaming, along with the altered states of
consciousness generated by some psychoactive drugs. A final chapter
looks ahead to future research and to what remains to be discovered in this fascinating and important field.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2013
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Creativity
  • Games with rules
  • Humour
  • Playfulness
  • Social play
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Bateson, P. et al. (2014) Playfulness, Ideas, and Creativity: A Survey (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This article investigates whether self-reports about playfulness are related to self-reports about creativity and the alternate uses of objects. An on-line survey was conducted of how people think about themselves. One thousand, five hundred and thirty-six people completed the survey. They were asked whether a variety of statements were very characteristic of themselves through to whether they were very uncharacteristic. Respondents were then asked to offer alternative uses for 2 different objects. Those people who characterized themselves as being playful clearly thought of themselves as being creative. The self-reports of their playfulness, creativity, and innovation were positively correlated with each other and were validated with their suggested uses for 2 different objects. Personality measures were derived from the respondents' self-assessments. On the openness scale, the measure was positively correlated with the respondents' assessments of their own playfulness and with the number of alternative uses for two objects.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2014
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
26
Page/s:
219-222
Synonyms:
  • Correlational
  • Creativity
  • Playfulness
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Buchsbaum, D. (2013) Learning Causal Structure in Social, Statistical and Imagined Contexts (Thesis)

Abstract:

A major challenge children face is uncovering the causal structure of the world around them. Previous research on children’s causal inference has demonstrated their ability to learn about causal relationships in the physical environment using probabilistic evidence. However, children must also learn about causal relationships in the social environment, including discovering the causes of other people’s behavior, and understanding the causal relationships between others’ goal-directed actions and the outcomes of those actions. In addition, many of the causal relationships children experience do not occur in the physical world at all, but instead occur in richly causal imaginary worlds.

In this dissertation, we argue that social reasoning and causal reasoning are deeply linked, both in the real world and in children’s minds. Children use both types of information together and in fact reason about both physical and social causation in fundamentally similar ways. We suggest that children jointly construct and update causal theories about their social and physical environment and that this process is best captured by probabilistic models of cognition. We also argue that causal pretense may serve as a form of counterfactual causal reasoning, allowing children to explore causal “what if” scenarios in alternative imaginary worlds, and suggest a theoretical link between the development of an extended period of immaturity in human evolution and the emergence of powerful and wide-ranging causal
learning mechanisms.

We investigate the complex and varied ways in which children learn causal relationships through three primary lines of research, each of which extends probabilistic models beyond reasoning about purely physical causes, while also characterizing the distinctive aspects of causal pretense and social causal reasoning. In the first set of studies, we examine how causal learning can influence the understanding and segmentation of action, and how observed statistical structure in human action can affect causal inferences. We present a Bayesian analysis of how statistical and causal cues to segmentation should optimally be combined, as well as four experiments investigating human action segmentation and causal inference.
We find that both adults and our model are sensitive to statistical regularities and causal structure in continuous action, and are able to combine these sources of information in order to correctly infer both causal relationships and segmentation boundaries.

The second line of work examines how the social context influences children’s causal learning, focusing particularly on children’s imitation of causal actions. We define a Bayesian model that predicts children will decide whether to imitate part or all of an action sequence based on both the pattern of statistical evidence and the demonstrator’s pedagogical stance.
We conducted an experiment in which preschool children watched an experimenter repeatedly perform sequences of varying actions followed by an outcome. Children’s imitation of sequences that produced the outcome increased, in some cases resulting in production of shorter sequences of actions that the children had never seen performed in isolation. A second experiment established that children interpret the same statistical evidence differently when it comes from a knowledgeable teacher versus a naıve demonstrator, suggesting that children attend to both statistical and pedagogical evidence in deciding which actions to imitate, rather than obligately imitating successful action sequences.

The final line of work explores the relationship between children’s understanding of real-world causal structure and their pretend play. We report a study demonstrating a link between pretend play and counterfactual causal reasoning. Preschool children given new information about a causal system made very similar inferences both when they considered counterfactuals about the system and when they engaged in pretend play about it. Counterfactual cognition and causally coherent pretense were also significantly correlated even when age, general cognitive development and executive function were controlled for. These findings link a distinctive human form of childhood play and an equally distinctive human form of causal inference. We speculate that during human evolution computations that were initially reserved for particularly important ecological problems came to be used much more widely and extensively during the long period of protected immaturity.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2013
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Pretend play
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Cabrera, N. et al. (2017) The magic of play: Low-income mothers’ and fathers’ playfulness and children's emotion regulation and vocabulary skills (Journal Article)

George, J. et al. (2017) Measurement of father-child rough-and-tumble play and its relations to child behaviour: Measurement of rough-and-tumble play (Journal Article)

Iizuka, A. et al. (2019) Can cognitive leisure activity prevent cognitive decline in older adults? A systematic review of intervention studies (Journal Article)

Lee, Y. et al. (2012) Are there cultural differences in how we play? Examining cultural effects on playing social network games (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Digital games embedded in social network sites are one of the driving forces behind the expansion of digital gamer populations. Previous studies have observed different usage patterns between users in different ethnic groups and countries, suggesting that culture orientations may affect how people play and interact through social network games. This study examined how people's culture orientations affect usage patterns with measures of vertical and horizontal individualism-collectivism. The findings indicate that culture does not directly affect usage patterns. Instead, the effects on usage patterns are mediated by people's expected outcomes of playing social network games. Vertical culture orientations predicted social expected outcomes. Individualism predicted status expected outcomes, but in different directions on the dimensions of vertical or horizontalness. Vertical collectivism was the only culture orientation that indirectly predicted buying in-game products with real money. Implications for game designers and markers are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2012
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
28
Page/s:
1307-1314
Synonyms:
  • Digital play
  • Games with rules
  • Social play
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Perfect, T. et al. (2002) Applied Metacognition (Book)

Abstract:

There is a growing theoretical and practical interest in the topic of metacognition; how we monitor and control our mental processes. Applied Metacognition provides a coherent and up-to-date overview of the relation between theories in metacognition and their application in real-world situations. As well as a theoretical overview, there are substantive chapters covering metacognition in three areas of application: metacognition in education, metacognition in everyday life memory and metacognition in different populations. The book has contributions from many of the leading researchers in metacognition from around the world.

Date:
January 2002
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Learning
  • Metacognition
  • Self-regulation
Relevant age group/s:

Proyer, R. et al. (2011) The virtuousness of adult playfulness: the relation of playfulness with strengths of character (Journal Article)

Abstract:
Author/s:
Date:
October 2011
Volume:
1
Page/s:
4
Keyword/s:
Synonyms:
  • Social play
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline: