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Panksepp, J. et al. (1984) The psychobiology of play: Theoretical and methodological perspectives (Journal Article)

Abstract:

The social play of pairs of juvenile rats can be brought under tight experimental control using social deprivation, and it can be objectively quantified by measurement of pinning behavior. Research and conceptual issues concerning this paired-encounter procedure are summarized, including issues related to (1) measurement, (2) gender differences (and the absence thereof), (3) relations between play and aggression, (4) the regulatory processes interacting with and underlying play, (5) the neurochemical and neuroanatomical substrates of play, (6) the functions of play in dominance and other adult behaviors. Existing results suggest the operation of a harmoniously operating brain process which generates a unique emotive brain process that is appropriately referred to as social play. Although the concept of play remains to be adequately defined, the position is advocated that rigorous psychobiological analysis will ultimately provide an empirical definition based upon neural circuit characteristics. Analysis of the underlying circuits may help reveal the manner in which more complex levels of behavioral competence arise ontogenetically, and work in the area may yield clues to the genesis of several psychopathologies.

Date:
January 1984
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
8
Page/s:
465-492
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Experimental
  • Physical play
  • Rough and tumble
  • Social play
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Panksepp, J. et al. (2003) Modeling ADHD-type arousal with unilateral frontal cortex damage in rats and beneficial effects of play therapy (Journal Article)

Abstract:
Date:
January 2003
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
52
Page/s:
97-105
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Experimental
  • Physical play
  • Rough and tumble
  • Social play
  • Executive function
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Panksepp, J. et al. (2003) “Laughing” rats and the evolutionary antecedents of human joy? (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Paul MacLean's concept of epistemics—the neuroscientific study of subjective experience—requires animal brain research that can be related to predictions concerning the internal experiences of humans. Especially robust relationships come from studies of the emotional/affective processes that arise from subcortical brain systems shared by all mammals. Recent affective neuroscience research has yielded the discovery of play- and tickle-induced ultrasonic vocalization patterns (∼50-kHz chirps) in rats may have more than a passing resemblance to primitive human laughter. In this paper, we summarize a dozen reasons for the working hypothesis that such rat vocalizations reflect a type of positive affect that may have evolutionary relations to the joyfulness of human childhood laughter commonly accompanying social play. The neurobiological nature of human laughter is discussed, and the relevance of such ludic processes for understanding clinical disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), addictive urges and mood imbalances are discussed.

Date:
January 2003
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
79
Page/s:
533-547
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Humour
  • Physical play
  • Rough and tumble
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Pellis, S. et al. (2007) Rough-and-Tumble Play and the Development of the Social Brain (Journal Article)

Abstract:
Date:
January 2007
Volume:
16
Page/s:
95-98
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Literature review
  • Physical play
  • Rough and tumble
  • Social play
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline: